The Naked Philosophers (Gymnosophists) by
My best friends Frank is a Naked philosopher.
Gymnosophists were the first to develop Game theory as adduced by Plutarch here.
The below story uses inductive reasoning as in Game Theory.
(Its certainly a prisoners dilemma but not the classical one.)
See The first one to answer could have been the first to be worst but by the time one knows the hidden
information all of them could be the first to be worst as the Judge claimed. But that is a paradox.
The judge who could have been the a last to be first to be worst. But was also the last to be worst.
The Game here is not to give the best answer but to keep anyone from being the first to be worst and getting killed.
So what did Plutarch say about Alexander the Great interaction
with Naked Philosophers in the Punjab valley of the Indus?
"He (Alexander) captured ten of the Gymnosophists who had done
most to get Sabbas to revolt, and had made the most trouble for the Macedonians.
These philosophers were reputed to be clever and concise in answering
questions, and Alexander therefore put difficult questions to them, declaring that he would put to death him who first made
an incorrect answer, and then the rest, in an order determined in like manner; and he commanded one of them, the oldest, to
be the judge in the contest.
The first one, accordingly, being asked which, in his opinion, were more
numerous, the living or the dead, said that the living were, since the dead no longer existed.
The second, being asked whether the earth or the sea produced larger
animals, said the earth did, since the sea was but a part of the earth.
The third, being asked what animal was the most cunning, said: "That
which up to this time man has not discovered."
The fourth, when asked why he had induced Sabbas to revolt, replied:
"Because I wished him either to live nobly or to die nobly."
The fifth, being asked which, in his opinion, was older, day or night,
replied: "Day, by one day"; and he added, upon the king expressing amazement, that hard questions must have hard answers.
Passing on, then, to the sixth, Alexander asked how a man could be most
loved; "If," said the philosopher, "he is most powerful, and yet does not inspire fear." Of the three remaining, he who was
asked how one might become a god instead of man, replied: "By doing something which a man cannot do"; the one who was asked
which was the stronger, life or death, answered: "Life, since it supports so many ills."
And the last, asked how long it were well for a man to live, answered:
"Until he does not regard death as better than life."
So, then, turning to the judge, Alexander bade him give his opinion.
The judge declared that they had answered one worse than another.
"Well, then," said Alexander, "thou shalt die first for giving such a
"That cannot be, O King," said the judge, "unless thou falsely saidst
that thou wouldst put to death first him who answered worst.""
Plutarch, Life of Alexander
Alexander did not kill any of the Gymnosophists mentioned but instead
sent them away.