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PERIOD OF KIEVAN RUS' 859-1240



860

Askold & Dir clear the Dnepr and attack Constantinople


THE RURIKOV DYNASTY 862-1613


862

Summoning of Rurik to Novgorod


862-879?

RURIK (Hrorekr)


879-913

OLEG (Helgi)


907

Oleg's expedition against Constantinople

911

Oleg's treaty with the Byzantine Empire


913-945

IGOR (Ingvar)


941

Expedition of Igor against Constantinople

945

Igor's treaty with Byzantine Empire


945-962

OLGA (Helga)


957

Olga baptized in Constantinople


962-972

SVIATOSLAV


965-967

Sviatoslav conquers the Khazar cities of Sarkel and Itil


980-1015

ST. VLADIMIR


988

Baptism of Vladimir and conversion of Russia to Christianity (but pagan beliefs continue among folk)

11th century

First birch-bark documents

Novgorod streets paved with lumber (first in Paris pavement, 1184)

Wooden water pipes laid in Novgorod

1016

Russian-Byzantine force destroys Georgius Tzul's Khazaria


1019-1054

YAROSLAV THE WISE


1030

Yaroslav starts first school in Novgorod

1037

Saint Sofia Cathedral begun in Kiev

1045-1057

Building of Saint Sofia in Novgorod

1051

The cave at Peshchersk Lavra settled by Antonius of Chernigov

1054

Schism between Eastern and Western Catholicism

1054-1073

Russkaia Pravda, first Russian law, written


1092?-1125

VLADIMIR MONOMAKH


1095

First election of prince in Novgorod

1116

Primary Chronicle composed


1125-1157

YURI DOLGORUKI (founder of Moscow)


1125-1200

Second version of Russkaia Pravda

1147

Moscow founded by Yuri Dolgoruki (English)

1156

First Kremlin built in Moscow


1157-1176

ANDREI BOGOLJUBSKI


1167

Sadko builds a church in Novgorod

1169

Sack of Kiev by Andrei Bogoliubsky, prince of Vladimir-Suzdal'


1176-1212

VSEVOLOD BIG NEST


1185

Igor Sviatoslavovich of Seversk marches against the Polovetsians

1195

First Novgorod treaty with German towns and Gotland

1196

Novgorod granted right to select prince

1204

4th Crusade captures Constantinople; Latin Empire rules until 1261


1212-1237

YURI II


1223

First Mongol invasion; Russians defeated on the Kalka

1227

Death of Genghis Khan

1237-1242

Mongol conquest of Russia


1237-1246

YAROSLAV II



THE APPANAGE PERIOD, 1240-1480



1240

Victory of Alexander Nevsky over Swedes on the Neva

1242

Battle on the Ice: Nevsky's victory over the Teutonic Knights on Lake Peipus

1253

Founding of Sarai as capital of the Golden Horde

1270

Novgorod treaty with the Hansa

1275

Population of Russia about ten million

1294

First Russian icon which is dated and signed (Novgorod)

1300

Metropolitan of Kiev settles at Vladimir

1326

Final establishment of Metropolitan in Moscow

1337

Foundation of Trinity Monastery in Sergiev Posad


1328-1340

IVAN I MONEY-BAGS (Kalita)


1340-1353

SIMEON THE PROUD


1348

Pskov secures independence from Novgorod

Swedish King Magnus marches against Novgorod


1353-1359

IVAN II THE MEEK


1359-1389

DMITRI DONSKOI


1360

Andrei Rublev born (probably)

1362

Kiev taken by Grand Duke of Lithuania, Olgerd

1367-1368

First stone fortifications of Moscow Kremlin

1371-1375

Heresy of Strigol'niks (Shearers) in Novgorod

1378

Feofan the Greek paints first frescoes in Novgorod

1380

Victory of Dmitri Donskoi over the Tatars at Kulikovo Field

1382

Moscow burnt by Tokhtamysh


1389-1425

VASSILY I


1390-1430

Active life of icon painter Andrei Rublev

1395

Defeat of the Golden Horde by Tamerlane


1425-1462

VASSILY II THE DARK


1430-1466

Disintegration of Golden Horde

1436

Foundation of Solovetsky Monastery

1439

Council of Florence Reunion of eastern and western churches

1441

Metropolitan Isidore deposed for accepting Council of Florence

1448

Church of Russia declared autocephalous

1453

Capture of Constantinople by the Ottomans


1462-1505

IVAN III THE GREAT


1471

Campaign of Ivan III against Novgorod Charter of the city of Novgorod

1472

Marriage of Ivan III with Zoe (Sophia), niece of last Byzantine Emperor

1475-1478

Cathedral of Assumption in Kremlin built by Fieravanti

1476-1478

Visit to Moscow of Ambrosio Contarini, first foreigner to write about Moscow

1478

Incoporation of Novgorod into Muscovy

1480

Unsuccessful campaign of Golden Horde against Ivan III

1480

END OF MUSCOVITE DEPENDENCY ON MONGOLS

1481-1502

Active career of icon and fresco painter Dionysius

1485

Cathedral of Annunciation built by masons from Pskov

1485-1516

Building of the new Kremlin in Moscow

1487-1491

Palace of Facets built by Marco Ruffo & Pietro Antonio Solari.

1488

Uprising in Novgorod

1494

End of the Hansa in Novgorod

1497

Sudebnik: Law code of Ivan III

1503

Church Council: Victory of the Josephites over the nonposessors

Heresy of Judaizers condemned


1505-1533

VASSILY III


1505-1509

Cathedral of Archangel Michael built by Alevisio Nuovi of Milan

1510

Incoporation of Pskov into Muscovy

1517-1519

Printing of first books in Russian in Prague

1524

Novodevichy Convent founded by Vasilli III

1525

Maxim the Greek condemned by the Church Council

1529-1560

Construction of churches at Dyakovo, Ostrovo and Kolomenskoe


1533-1538

REGENCY OF YELENA GLINSKAYA 1533-1538


1538-1547

PERIOD OF DISPUTED REGENCY (BELSKYS AND SHUISKYS)


1547-1584

IVAN IV (THE TERRIBLE)


1547

Twenty-two Russian saints canonized Novgorod and Pskov icon painters ordered to Moscow after great fire

1550-1555

Construction of the Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed celebrating the capture of Asktrakhan (1556)

1550-1700

134 books translated into Russian

1551

Council of the Hundred Chapters (Stoglav)

1552

Capture of Kazan

1553

Opening of the White Sea route by Willoghby and Chancellor

1555

Granting of charter to The Russia Company (England)

1556

Asktrakhan defeated

1558

Stroganovs granted land on Kama River

1558-1583

Livonian war against Poland and Sweden, for possession of Baltic

1560's

Edition of Domostroi, a book of principles of family life

1564

First book printed in Moscow

Kurbsky flees to Lithuania

1565-1572

Ivan the Terrible's reign of terror: the oprichnina

1566

First Zemskii Sobor (Consultative Land Assembly)

1570

Ivan the Terrible's pogrom in Novgorod

1571

Crimean Tartars burn Moscow

1571-1600

Fortification of southern frontier Beginning of Don, Zaporozhian, and Ural Cossacks

1580's

Boris Godunov sends 18 Russians to study abroad (none return)

1582

Yermak and the beginning of the conquest of Siberia

Privilege of St. George's Day (Iur'ev Den'), November 26, abolished


1584-1598

FEDOR I


1585

Foundation of Archangelsk



THE TIME OF TROUBLES, 1598-1613



1598-1605

BORIS GODUNOV Lord Protector


1588

Giles Fletcher in Moscow

1589

Creation of Moscow Patriarchate

1590's

Rostov becomes the seat of Metropolitan

1591

Dmitri tsarevich killed in Uglich

1601-1603

Famine

Erection of the bell tower of Ivan the Great

1606-1607

Revolt of Bolotnikov

1610-1612

Poles occupy Moscow

1612-1613

Minin and Pozharsky lead popular militia against Poles in Moscow

1611-1617

Swedes occupy Novgorod


THE ROMANOV DYNASTY, 1613-1917


1613

Election of Michael Romanov as tsar by Zemskii Sobor


1613-1645

MICHAEL FEDOROVICH ROMANOV


1618

Peace with Sweden

Loss of any outlet to Baltic

1634-1638

Two visits of Adam Olearius to Moscow

1636

Patriarch orders all musical instruments burned


1645-1676

ALEXIS MIKHAILOVICH ROMANOV


1648-1649

Up-risings in Moscow and other towns

1649

Ulozhenie: Law Code of Tsar Alexis

Abolition of English trading privileges

1650's

Moscow population about 200,000

1650

Patriarch standardizes the five-domed church

1652

Foreigners in Moscow required to live in Nemetskaia Sloboda

1653

Last full meeting of Zemskii Sobor

1654

Church Council adopts Nikon's reforms

1654

BEGINNING OF THE SCHISM (Raskol)

Union of Ukraine with Muscovy

1660's

Moscow linked with Amsterdam and Berlin by regular postal service

1664

Grigorii Kotoshikhin flees to Sweden

1666

Church Council deposes Patriarch Nikon

1667

Cession to Moscovy of Kiev, Little Russia, and Smolensk

1670-1671

Revolt of Stenka Razin

1671

Avvakum writes his Life in prison

1672

Russian embassies sent to all major European states

1672

Artakserova deistva, first play given at Moscow court

1674

Synopsis, first textbook of Russian history, appears

1676

Theater opens at Preobrazhenskoe


1676-1682

FEDOR III ROMANOV


1682

Peter assumes throne, with Sophia as regent

1684

Sophia institutes formal persecution of Old Believers by decree

1689

Treaty of Nerchinsk with China


THE IMPERIAL PERIOD, 1689-1917
 
 
1689-1725 PETER I, THE GREAT

1695
  • Beginning of the Russian navy
  • 1696 July 18
  • Surrender of Azov to Peter I
  • 1697
  • Conquest of Kamchatka
  • 1697-1698
  • Peter's visit to the West
  • Revolt of Streltsy crushed
  • 1700
  • Suspension of the patriarchate
  • 1700-1721
  • Great Northern War with Sweden
  • 1703
  • Founding of St. Petersburg
  • Russia's first newspaper established: Vedomosti o voennykh i inykh delakh
  • May
  • Peter & Paul Fortress founded
  • 1704
  • Peter I takes Narva from Charles XII of Sweden
  • 1707-1708
  • Bulavin uprising
  • 1708
  • Establishment of the guberniias (provinces)
  • 1709
  • Russian victory over Charles XII of Sweden at Poltava
  • 1710
  • First census (household and tax)
  • 1711
  • First press in St. Petersburg
  • November 19
  • Mikhail Lomonosov born
  • 1713
  • Transfer of capital to St. Petersburg
  • 1716-1717
  • Jean-Baptiste Le Blond begins Petrodvorets (Peterhof)
  • 1718
  • Institution of poll tax
  • Foundation of administrative colleges
  • Tsarevich Alexis killed
  • 1720
  • Pososhkov's book On Poverty and Wealth
  • 1721
  • Holy Synod replaces patriarchate
  • Treaty of Nystad: Livonia, Estonia, Karelia, Ingria acquired from Sweden
  • Peter assumes the title of emperor
  • Organization of state postal service
  • 1722
  • Table of Ranks established
  • 1725
  • Death of Peter the Great
  • Foundation of the Academy of Sciences

  • 1725-1727 CATHERINE I SKAVRONSKA

    1727-1730 PETER II ROMANOV

    1728
  • Sankt-Peterburgskie vedomosti first published
  • 1725-1729
  • Arctic expedition of Vitus Bering (second, 1732-1741)
  • 1730
  • Struggle over the terms of the succession

  • 1730-1740 ANNA ROMANOVA

    1741
  • Lomonosov appointed to the Academy of Sciences
  • Vitus Bering discovers the Aleutian Islands and Alaska

  • 1740-1741 IVAN VI ROMANOV

    1741-1762 ELIZABETH ROMANOVA

    1746
  • Ban of purchase of serfs by non-nobles
  • 1750
  • First professional Russian theater founded in Yaroslavl by Fyodor Volkov
  • 1753
  • Decree abolishing internal customs
  • 1754-1762
  • Bartolomeo Rastrelli builds the Winter Palace
  • 1755
  • Lomonosov founds Moscow University
  • 1760's
  • Fonvizin's comedies The Brigadier, The General and The Minor
  • 1760
  • Landowners granted right to exile serfs to Siberia

  • 1761-1762 PETER III ROMANOV

    1762
  • Peter III issues Manifesto on the Rights of the Nobility
  • Peter III murdered

  • 1762-1796 CATHERINE II THE GREAT VON ANHALT-ZERBST

    1764-67
  • Founding of German colonies along the Lower Volga River
  • 1764
  • Final secularization of Church lands
  • 1765
  • Establishment of the Free Economic Society
  • 1767
  • Peasants forbidden to submit complaints against their landowners
  • 1767-1768
  • Legislative Commission
  • 1769-1794
  • Catherine the Great publishes satirical journals
  • Novikov's journals The Drone and The Painter
  • 1772
  • First partition of Poland--Belorussia annexed to Russia
  • 1773-1775
  • Revolt of Pugachev
  • 1774
  • Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainardji
  • 1775
  • Liquidation of the Zaporozhian Cossacks
  • 1780's
  • Englishman Cameron builds at Tsarskoe Selo
  • 1781-1786
  • Full absorption of the Ukraine into Russian Empire
  • 1782-1785
  • Giacomo Quarenghi builds the Hermitage
  • 1783
  • Incorporation of the Crimea
  • Private printing presses permitted
  • 1784
  • Gregory Shelekov establishes the first colony in Alaska
  • 1785 April 21
  • Charter of the Nobility and gentry an estate
  • 1790
  • Radishchev's Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow
  • 1793
  • Second Partition of Poland
  • 1795
  • Third Partition of Poland
  • 1796
  • Death of Catherine the Great
  • The Alexander Palace is completed

  • 1796-1801 PAUL I ROMANOV

    1797
  • Establishment of the three-day barshchina
  • 1799
  • Russo-American Trading Company formed
  • Suvorov's campaign in northern Italy and Switzerland
  • June 6
  • Alexander S. Pushkin born
  • 1801
  • Murder of Paul I

  • 1801-1825 ALEXANDER I ROMANOV

    1801
  • Acquisition of eastern Georgia
  • Sale of serfs without land prohibited
  • 1802
  • Formation of ministries
  • 1806
  • Conquest of Daghestan and Baku
  • 1806-1815
  • The new Admiralty built by Zakharov
  • 1807-1811
  • Reforms of Speransky
  • 1809
  • Krylov's Fables
  • Annexation of Finland
  • 1812 June 24
  • Napoleon's invasion of Russia
  •   August 26
  • Battle of Borodino
  •   Sept 14
  • Napoleon enters Moscow
  •   October 19
  • Napoleon departs Moscow
  • 1813-1814
  • Alexander's pursuit of Napoleon to Paris
  • 1815-1825
  • Ascendancy of Arakcheev
  • 1816-1819
  • Abolition of serfdom in Baltic provinces
  • 1817
  • Transfer of the Makariev Fair to Nizhnii Novgorod
  • 1817-1857
  • Montferrand builds St. Isaac's Cathedral
  • 1818
  • Karamzin's History of the Russian State
  • 1819
  • University of St. Petersburg founded
  • 1819-1829
  • The Italian Rossi builds the General Staff Building on Palace Square
  • 1821
  • F. M. Dostoevsky born October 30 in Moscow

  • 1825-1855 NICHOLAS I ROMANOV

    1825
  • Decembrist Uprising Griboedov's comedy Woe from Wit
  • 1830
  • Briullov's painting Last Day of Pompeii
  • Alexander Pushkin completes Eugene Onegin
  • Mathematician Lobachevsky publishes first work
  • 1830-1831
  • Polish rebellion
  • 1832
  • Uvarov's three principles enunciated: autocracy, orthodoxy, nationality
  • Alexandrine Theater in St. Petersburg opened
  • 1833
  • Code of Laws
  • 1834
  • Kiev University founded
  • 1836 Nov 27
  • Glinka's opera Life for the Tsar (Ivan Susanin)
  • Gogol's Inspector General
  • Chadaaev's Philosophical Letters
  • 1837
  • A. S. Pushkin shot in a dual with D'Anthes, dies January 29
  • 1838
  • First Russian railroad--St. Petersburg to Tsarskoe Selo
  • Gubernskie vedomosti first published by order of the tsar
  • 1838-1847
  • Belinsky works on the Notes of the Fatherland
  • 1840
  • Lermontov's Hero of Our Time
  • 1841
  • Ban against the sale of peasants individually
  • 1842
  • Glinka's opera Ruslan and Ludmila
  • Gogol's Dead Souls
  • 1846
      May 30
  • Abolition of Corn Laws in England; increase of Russian grain exports
  • Peter Carl Faberge born in St. Petersburg
  • 1847
  • Herzen leaves Russia forever
  • Belinsky's Letter to Gogol
  • 1849
  • Dostoevsky sentenced to forced labor in Siberia
  • Russian intervention in Hungary
  • 1851 Nov 13
  • St. Petersburg-Moscow railway opened
  • 1852
  • Turgenev's Sportsman's Notebook
  • 1853
  • Ostrovsky's first play produced
  • 1853-1856
  • Crimean War
  • 1855
  • Death of Nicholas I

  • 1855-1881 ALEXANDER II ROMANOV

    1856
  • George | Plekhanov born
  • 1857
  • First issue of Herzen's Kolokol (The Bell)
  • Alexander Ivanov's painting Christ's Appearance to the People
  • 1858-1860
  • Acquisition from China of Amur and Maritime provinces
  • 1859
  • Surrender of Shamil; conquest of Caucasus completed
  • Goncharov's Oblomov
  • 1860
  • Founding of Vladivostok
  • 1860-1873
  • First railway boom
  • 1861 Feb 19
  • Emancipation of the serfs
  • 1862
  • St. Petersburg Conservatory founded; Anton Rubinstein, director
  • The Mighty Five (Balakierev, Cui, Borodin, Rimsky-Korsakov, Mussorgsky) announce intentions to create a school of true Russian music
  • Turgenev's Fathers and Sons
  • 1863
  • Polish rebellion
  • Artists Co-operative Society (Peredvizhniki) founded
  • Chernyshevsky's What Is To Be Done?
  • 1863-1865
  • Law (courts) and education reform Zemstvo instituted
  • 1864-1885
  • Conquest of central Asia
  • 1866
  • Moscow Conservatory founded; Tchaikovsky becomes a professor
  • Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment is published
  • 1867 March 30
  • Alaska sold to the United States of America
  • 1869
  • Tolstoy's War and Peace is published
  • 1870
    April 22
  • Society for Traveling Art Exhibitions (Peredvizhniks)
  • Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Lenin) is born
  • Mendeleyev's Principles of Chemistry
  • 1872
  • Russian translation of Marx's Capital
  • Carl Faberge takes over his father's jewelry business
  • 1873
  • Beginning of the movement To the People (V narod)
  • 1874
  • Mussorgsky's opera Boris Godunov
  • 1876
  • Land and Freedom Party
  • 1877
  • Tchaikovsky's Swan Lake
  • 1877-1878
    March 3
    June 13
  • War with Turkey
  • Treaty of San Stefano
  • Congress of Berlin Begins
  • 1878
  • Tchaikovsky's First Piano Concerto takes Paris by storm
  • Tchaikovsky's opera Eugene Onegin
  • Tolstoy's Anna Karenina
  • 1879
  • People's Will Party and Black Partition established
  • 1880
  • Dostoevsky's Brothers Karamazov
  • 1881 March 1
  • Assassination of Alexander II

  • 1881-1894 ALEXANDER III ROMANOV

    1884
  • Reactionary regulations for universities
  • 1888
  • Rimsky-Korsakov's Scheherazade
  • 1890
  • Borodin's opera Prince Igor
  • Tchaikovsky's Sleeping Beauty
  • 1891
  • Beginning of the Trans-Siberian railway
  • 1891-1893
  • Making of the Franco-Russian alliance
  • 1892
  • Tret'iakov donates his art collection to the city of Moscow
  • 1892-1903
  • Witte as minister of communications, finance and commerce

  • 1894-1917 NICHOLAS II ROMANOV

    1896
  • Disastrous production of Chekhov's The Seagull in St. Petersburg
  • 1897 Jan 28
  • First all-Russian census counts 128,907,692 people
  • 1898
  • Moscow Art Theater founded, produces Chekhov's Sea Gull
  • 1st Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Party (Minsk)
  • Occupation of Port Arthur
  • 1900
  • Boxer Rebellion; Russia occupies Manchuria
  • 1901 Jan 31
  • Chekhov's Three Sisters opens at MKhAT to poor reviews
  • 1902
  • Gorky's Lower Depths opens at MKhAT
  • 1903
  • 2nd Party Congress (Brussels)
  • Split into Mensheviks and Bolsheviks
  • 1904
  • General strike in Tbilisi and Baku
  • 1904-1905
  • Russo-Japanese War
  • 1905
    January 22

    October 17
  • 1905 REVOLUTION: General Strike
  • Bloody Sunday
  • October Manifesto
  • Potemkin Mutiny
  • 3rd Party Congress
  • Constitutional Democrats (Kadets) Program
  • 1906

    April
  • 4th Party Congress
  • First Duma
  • First Constitution (Fundamental Law)
  • 1906-1911
  • The Stolypin | Land Reforms
  • 1907
  • Second Duma
  • 5th Party Congress
  • Emergence of Triple Entente (France, Britain, Russia) against Triple Alliance (Germany, Austro-Hungary, Italy)
  • Third Duma
  • 1908
  • Trotsky becomes editor of Pravda in Vienna
  • 1909 May 19
  • First performance of Diaghilev's Ballet russe
  • 1910
    November 7
  • Igor Stravinsky's Firebird scandalizes Paris
  • Leo Tolstoy dies at Astapovo station
  • 1911-1913
  • Balkan Wars
  • 1912
    April 4
  • Fourth Duma
  • Lena gold field massacre (from which Lenin took his pseudonym)
  • 1913
  • Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring
  • 1914
  • World War I begins
  • St. Petersburg renamed 'Petrograd'
  • 1916 Dec 16
  • Murder of Rasputin by Felix | Yusupov et al.